Software for Nuclear Accidents
Methodology and Software for Effectiveness of Countermeasures in Case of Nuclear Accidents as Part of RODOS
Tech Area / Field
- ENV-MRA/Modelling and Risk Assessment/Environment
8 Project completed
Senior Project Manager
Komarkov D A
Scientific & Production Association “Typhoon”, Russia, Kaluga reg., Obninsk
- ROSENERGOATOM, Russia, Moscow\nNIIIT (Pulse Techniques), Russia, Moscow
- Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe Technik und Umwelt / Institut für Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik, Germany, Karlsruhe
Project summaryIn spite of continuing efforts and developed means to improve safety at NPP and any other technically sophisticated facilities there is a certain risk of an accidental situation associated with them. This is of particular concern for NPPS because even a minor release of radioactivity into the environment, can result, under certain conditions in an emergency. A safety system at NPP, should include as an integral part a system for diagnosing emergency situations at the earliest possible stage, making the information available to local, regional, national and international bodies and providing support to take adequate measures at the facility and around it. The creation of such a system is the goal of the proposed project. Whereas the tasks of detecting accidental situations and providing information about them are being addressed with a better or worse degree of success, computer support to selection of optimum countermeasures agreed at different management levels, which is of particular importance at the early stage of an accident, is a new problem. The need to the take into account, simultaneously, radiological, demographic, economic and social aspects makes this task rather complicated. To achieve the indicated goal the following problems need to be solved:
• adaptation, parameterization and validation of prognostic models describing environmental contamination around NPPs;
• development of a methodology for assessing radiation risk based on radiological monitoring data and results of prognostic modeling;
• development of criteria for assessing and selecting countermeasures;
• evaluation of effectiveness of countermeasures through simulation modeling of evolution of typical accidents at NPPS and changes in the radiation situation in the affected area;
• development of methods of multicriteria selection based on the analysis of the structure of preferences of a decision-marker;
• creating databases on effectiveness of countermeasures with allowance for specific features of operation of nuclear facilities.
Prospective participants of the project are specialists in environmental protection, physicists, mathematicians, programmers and engineers who were earlier dealing with chemical and radiation protection and supporting nuclear testing. It is essential that the project developers have both national and international experience in developing computer systems for decision-making support. The scientific and technical base of the project is the system for support of radioecological analysis (RECASS) being developed by SPA "Typhoon" which includes GIS, a system of distributed banks of meteorological and radiological data and series of geophysical and radioecological models to predict environmental contamination as well as methods and tools being developed as part of the system of preventing and mitigating emergencies at NPP (the system "GARANT", developed in the "Rosenergoatom" concern). The project will also rely on the system for decision marking support in the event of a nuclear accident RODOS (coordinator - FZK Research Centre in Karlsruhe, Germany) which is being developed with support of the European Commission. It is worth noting that SPA "Typhoon" is responsible for scientific and methodological guidance of the radiation monitoring network on the territory of Russia. The "Rosenegoatom" concern is intended to ensure safe and effective energy production at NPPS of Russia. Research Institute of Pulse Technique is one of the leading organizations in the Ministry of Atomic Energy responsible for certification of electric equipment of NPPS. It is in charge of nuclear and radiation safety in all operation phases at NPPS and possesses all necessary information as to operation of NPPS and their equipment under normal and accidental conditions. SPA "Typhoon" and FZK has significant methodological experience gained in the studies of the consequences of the Chernobyl and other radiation- related accidents, among them international projects supported by the European Commission and IAEA. Collaborative work of specialists from the indicated organizations will guarantee high methodological and scientific level of the proposed development. As an application of the project it is proposed:
• to perform prognostic calculations and generate mark of potential radiation risk for Russia and European countries on the basis of the RODOS system for different scenarios of potential radiation accidents at the Kola and Smolensk NPPS ;
• to develop recommendations on planning countermeasures in the case of potential accident at NPP with reactors WWER- 440 and RMBK-1000.
Implementation of the project will have an economic and social significance for planning countermeasures in the case of a radiation accident. Timely prediction of potential radiological consequences under different scenarios of radiation accidents will allow identification of most vulnerable areas of Russia and Europe in terms of potential radioactive contamination and take adequate measures to ensure radiation protection of the population and the environment.
The expected results will be possible to be used for planning countermeasures at other NPPS in CIS and East European countries. They will enable to better classify the risks of possible incidents and identify the priorities in safety systems. Most of the developments will be possible to be used for designing safety systems of other nuclear facilities.
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