Diagnostics of Radiation Injury
Elaboration of the immune-chemical and physical test-systems for express-diagnosis and prognosis of the radiation injury
Tech Area / Field
- MED-DID/Diagnostics & Devices/Medicine
8 Project completed
Senior Project Manager
Ryzhova T B
Russian Academy of Sciences / Kazan Physical-Technical Institute, Russia, Tatarstan, Kazan
- All-Russian Research Veterinarian Institute, Russia, Tatarstan, Kazan
Project summaryAn acute and chronic X-ray disease brought about by either an external or incorporated radiation injury (instantaneous or prolonged) are characterized by a varied pathogenesis and dynamics of its evolution. The present-day traditional clinical and laboratory methods and ways of diagnosing radiation injury as well as physical methods of dose testing are not effective or not efficient enough and are characterized by a number of considerable drawbacks: they are retrospective and are not sensitive enough. All this testifies to the fact that the elaboration of ways and means of diagnosing radiation injuries is a current matter of supreme importance.
The enzyme immuno-assay (EIA) and the oblique hemagglutination test (OHT) have been used of late for express-diagnosis of a disease in its different forms.
As is known, ferment-labeled antibodies are universal reagents when determining antigenes (viruses, hormones, toxins etc). An antigene (AG) or antibody (AB) gets ferment-labeled during an immune reaction. By ensuing changes in the substrate we may judge about the quantity of components entered in AG – AB reaction. A high sensitivity of the EIA makes it possible to determine the nanogrammes of the substance.
Another high sensitive serological test used for determining AG is the OHT. The test is far more advanced as compared with conventional methods of immune-chemical analyses and is by tens times as sensitive. An OHT presupposes adsorption of AG and/or AB on the surface of formalinized and tanized erythrocytes and then there takes place their agglutination (hemagglutination) by AB homological to the AG. Poisons of floral, virus, chemical, zoogenic kinds, etc may bring about hemagglutination.
It is evident that not a single existing immune-chemical method can be absolutely reliable, therefore in practice a combination of tests is usually resorted to. Furthermore, it is rather difficult to detect by OHT and EIA any signs of AG-radiotoxins in peripheral blood in the first hours of radiation exposure due to their insignificant amount. All this necessitates resorting to up-to date high sensitive physical methods. In our case we suggest the employment of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and the atomic force microscopy (AFM) as intercontrolling test-systems.
Researches in this field and their further elaboration with the help of both immune-chemical and various physical test-systems for diagnosing radiation injuries make it possible to conduct a comparative analysis of these methods and to study thoroughly the dynamics of the X-ray disease.
Taking into account what is mentioned above, the aim of this project is an elaboration of immune-chemical and physical test-systems for express-diagnosis and prognosis of radiation injuriy.
To attain the goal two important tasks are to be fulfilled.
1. Working out methods and ways for express-diagnosis of X-ray disease by means of an enzyme immuno-assay and oblique hemagglutination test with a sensitivity limit not higher than 100g of radiotoxins, the time limit of diagnosis being not more than 2 - 3 hours.
2. Working out physical methods of express-diagnosis of X-ray disease based on magnetic radiospectroscopy and scanning probe microscopy as well as studying the dynamics of the evolution of the X-ray disease by investigating the composition of the cells of the peripheral blood and the microstructure of the tissue.
The requirements for the production, control and application of the indicator for the OHT and EIA- tests are to be elaborated and, furthermore, a comparative study of the results attained by immune-chemical and physical methods is to be conducted.
On the fulfillment of the project investigations it is planned to produce the elaborated test-systems as well as their clinic checking. This fact may rate the submitted project as having a commercial value.
It must be mentioned that the technological characteristics of components of the test-system in question are unique and can be used as part of the diagnostic equipment.The scientists engaged in this project fall into two groups.
The first group comprises the scientists and specialists of All-Russia Research Veterinary Institute (ARRVI). The ARRVI is a well-known scientific centre and part of the Veterinary Department of the Russian Federation Ministry of Agriculture that has been monitoring researches on problems of veterinary radiobiology and toxicology. Researches on the elaboration of immune-chemical test-systems for express-diagnoses and prognoses of the X-ray disease are to be conducted by highly-skilled experts in the field of radiobiology and immunology, viz., an academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan, doctors and candidates of sciences.
The second group is represented by the scientists of the Kazan Physical Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (KPTI of RAS), a leading Institute in the field of magnetic radiospectroscopy. For years the Institute has been publishing the international scientific journal “Applied Magnetic Resonance”. Of late investigations on the radiation physics have been carried out. The influence of the ionizing radiation on different substances has been intensively studied by using the methods of magnetic radiospectroscopy as well as atomic force microscopy. The group of the investigators will comprise scientists of the world reputation that are highly experienced in the field of radiospectroscopy, and experts in the field of radiation physics and physics of the surface, viz., a corresponding member of the RAS, doctors and candidates of sciences.
The submitted project is in full conformity with the aims and objectives of ISTC.
· It ensures new jobs for weapon scientists and specialists dealing with missile-nuclear and biological weapons, thus turning their efforts and work for peaceful purposes.
· It will contribute to applied and fundamental researches in the field of the diagnosis of radiation affects, nuclear security and protecting the environment against radiation contamination.
· The project will help weapon specialists to join international cooperation.
An outstanding American scientist working in the field of radiobiology, biomedicine and magnetic resonance is expected to collaborate in this Project.
The participation of the foreign collaborator suppose the following:
· assistance in the drawing up of project proposals;
· information exchange and cross-checks of results obtained in the course of the project application;
· conducting joint seminars and workshops;
· shared use of certain equipment and/or test and sample materials.