Botanical pesticides for use against fire blight.
Botanical pesticides as alternative materials for replacing antibiotics in fire blight control.
Tech Area / Field
- AGR-DIS/Disease Surveillance/Agriculture
- AGR-PPR/Plant Protection/Agriculture
3 Approved without Funding
Institute of Biology and Pedology, Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek
- Michigan State University, USA, MI, East Lansing\nOregon State University, USA, OR, Corvallis
Project summarymolecular-genetic methods of research and development of biotechnological approaches for creating herbal preparations with bactericidal action.
Known as fire blight bacterial disease causing malicious damage to crops of apples and pears, leaving wounds on fruit trees, such as after the fire. Without effective intervention, fire blight can destroy the flowers, twigs, branches, and sometimes whole trees, which looses the efficiency of commercial fruit growing.
Such harming is very high due to the very rapid proliferation. In heavily infected orchards of fruit trees burn can affect 20 to 50% of plantations, of which 10-20% is completely killed. In some orchards burns even to 90% of fruit trees. In such cases, under favorable weather conditions during the flowering gardens, the harvest is greatly reduces and often disappears. The presence of fire blight of fruit in the country can be disastrous for pear, apple orchards and nursery-garden: many ornamental plants are reservations of infection. Due to the strong spread of burn in many countries, there are cases of significant territorial reduction under plantations of fruit crops.
From existing measures to combat bacterial blight, no one does not guarantee recovery of the infected plantations. The chemical method is used to reduce the development of infections and preventing new infections. Modern fungicides, except for copper, do not affect the fire blight pathogen. In addition to copper-containing products against fire blight in different countries use hypochlorite soda, oxolinic acid, fosetyl aluminum, regalis. The most effective method of plant protection is the use of antibiotics during the flowering period. The most popular is streptomycin, in Europe it is replaced by plantomitsinom, nouseotrinom, kasugamycin and other..
Previously it was thought that the treatment with streptomycin and tetracycline trees is the only reliable way to deal with this disease. However, after it became clear that the antibiotics are primarily responsible for widespread bacterial resistance, and given the fact that the use of antibiotics is not consistent with the philosophy of organic farming, in 2011 NOSB decided gradually, until October 14, 2014 to withdraw streptomycin and tetracycline into disuse in the fruit farming.
An alternative method of confrontation blight would be the use of botanical pesticides. An important aspect of the antimicrobial compounds obtained from plants of wild flora, is the ability to find ways to release the active structures and the study of the biological activity, depending on their chemical structure. We have previously found that the number of plant of wild flora of Kyrgyzstan (Armoracia rusticana, Juniperus polycarpos, Berberis vulgaris, Calendula officinalis, Calendula officinalis L. Allium sativum, etc.) contain compounds having bactericidal activity.
Wild flora of Kyrgyzstan has more than 4,000 plant species from 875 genera, 150 families, with a high degree of endemism (Cherepanov, 1995). More than 1,000 plant species are used as food, medicinal and honey plants (Golovkova, Chubarova, 1988). However, the literature is very limited information on the capacity of local flora influence the pathogenic bacteria. In this connection, in 2006 - 2008, the Academy of Sciences of the Kyrgyz Republic organized a special expedition to find rare endemic plants of the families, who according to our own predecessors and had entomofauna and phytopathogenic activity (Chakaeva and others 2002).Herbal drugs are already being used in security systems of the closed and open ground crop cultures. Replacement of chemical pesticides on the natural - an important area of modern organic farming.Organic farming - is not only a method of producing environmentally friendly products, but also an effective way to restore the natural ecological communities.
In this connection, the is the following tasks:
- Monitoring of the Kyrgyz fruit trees and identify pockets of fire blight dissemination using modern molecular-genetic methods of research;
- Search for biologically active plant among endemic and sub-endemic species of Kyrgyzstan that could potentially be used to control Erwinia amylovora;
- Isolation of biologically active substances (BAS) of the plant material and to assess their impact on the various biological processes of fire blight pathogen;
- Proposals for the use of biologically active substances, which showed high effectiveness against fire blight pathogen in orchards protection systems.
Scope of Activities The next major work will be performed under the project:
- - Monitoring fruit trees in Kyrgyzstan and identify pockets of fire blight dissemination using modern.
- Description of the problem and its main stages:
• Selection of infected plant samples.
- Molecular genetic analysis on IF and PCR.