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Nanocarbon electrochemical biosensors

#3230


Development of Electrochemical Biosensors Using Nano Structured Materials Involving Carbon-Сontaining Сompounds

Tech Area / Field

  • MED-DID/Diagnostics & Devices/Medicine
  • BIO-CGM/Cytology, Genetics and Molecular Biology/Biotechnology
  • CHE-ANL/Analytical Chemistry/Chemistry

Status
8 Project completed

Registration date
30.03.2005

Completion date
11.01.2010

Senior Project Manager
Melnikov V G

Leading Institute
Ural State Economic University, Russia, Sverdlovsk reg., Ekaterinburg

Supporting institutes

  • State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR, Russia, Novosibirsk reg., Koltsovo

Collaborators

  • Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Korea, Yuseong

Project summary

The problem of infectious disease express diagnostic is one of the priority problems of modern health protection. It is connected both with the appearance of new dangerous virus infections (for example, Ebohl virus, coronavirus SARS) and bioterrorism real threatening.

The requirements to express diagnostic system are as follows: high sensitivity, selectivity, responsiveness, simplicity of application, autonomy. In our days instrument methods, based on biosensors as sensitive elements are used in modern population health monitoring. High sensitivity and selectivity are the advantages of biosensors, based on enzymes. Nonstability and high price are essential disadvantages of them. Besides traditionally applied methods presume the use of expensive equipment, which cannot be afforded by a lot of medical care institutions, especially in the developing countries.

High sensitivity and selectivity, high speed, possibility of on-site application give one a chance to propose electrochemical analytical systems based on non enzymatic biosensors to serve the purpose of express diagnostics. The creation of electrochemical non enzymatic biosensors which are not less sensitive and selective than enzyme containing ones will give an opportunity to overcome the lack of enzyme stability and the use of special substrate which provides the signal forming reaction for enzyme containing sensors.

Such qualities as chemical stability and rather high electrical conductivity, high specific surface area and consequently high adsorption capability make carbon nanostructured materials (NSM) very perspective transducers. Nanomaterial thin film on non conducting substrate deposition will give an opportunity to immobilize different kinds of compounds on electrode surface, including biological ones, and consequently will provide high sensitivity and selectivity of biosensors based on above discussed materials. Metal nanoparticles concentrated on sensor surface are offered as signal generating substance. Simplicity of electrochemical metal determination will provide demanded sensor sensitivity and high method availability, including on-site conditions.

Solution of the problem of electrochemical non enzymatic biosensors development demands cooperation of experts in different kinds of knowledge, i.e. in material science, physics, analytical chemistry, biochemistry, microbiology, genetic engineering, programming. The above mentioned cooperation will be realized in the frames of the proposed project.

Goals and Objectives of the Project:

  1. Development of the approach to the creation of new nonenzymatic biosensors based on immunocomplex ‘antigen-antibody’ using as signal generating compound Protein/Antibodies/Antigens, labeled with nanopartikles of metals, and using carbon containing nanomaterial as a transducer. Antigens of measles and forest-spring encephalitis will serve as model systems.
  2. Development of electrochemical nonenzymatic biosensors for detection of measles and ‘tick- forest-spring encephalitis antigens and specific antibodies.
  3. Development of the software and methods of express diagnostics of infection deceases ‘measles’ and ‘forest-spring encephalitis’, adopted to voltammetric analyzer ‘IVA’.

Meeting ISTC Goals and Objectives
  • The Project will provide an opportunity for scientists and specialists occupied in biological weapons development to re-orient themselves to peaceful activities.
  • The Project will help to integrate scientists from Russia into the international scientific community. Cooperation with foreign collaborators will attract intellectual potential and research opportunities of Project participants to appropriate international community activity spheres. Project realization provides participation of Russian scientists, including young specialists, in international conferences, working in the laboratories abroad, establishing new international contacts.
  • The Project will support the fundamental and applied research and development of the newest technologies in medicine and environmental safety.
  • The Project will favor the development of the market economy meeting civil needs, because international market needs new generation materials with the unique physicochemical properties, available equipment for rapid virus disease diagnostics and organism immune status determination, systematic environmental monitoring.

Project will be carried out by the researchers and engineers of
  • research laboratory of the Department of chemistry of the Urals State University of Economics (RL USUE) which works successfully in the field of creation of electrochemical sensors based on carbon containing materials, development of voltammetric analytical instruments, software and analytical laboratory techniques particularly in the frames of ISTC Projects #342 и #2132
  • State Research Center of Virusology and Biotechnology ‘Vector’ (SRC VB ‘Vector’), having great experience in the developing of diagnostic testing systems for virus and bacterial antigens, and application of genetic engineering methods and chemical synthesis of biological schema for creating of molecules having preset immune properties.

The following tasks will be solved in the frames of the Project:
  • Development principles and technical aspects of non enzymatic biosensors creation, in which carbon nanostructured materials will be used as transducers and, molecules labeled with metal nanoparticles will be used as information generative compound.
  • Development criteria for choosing biomolecules, suitable for immobilization on the transducer.
  • Choice of biomaterial (virion, virus protein, protein fragments, antibodies) to be labeled with nanoparticles of metals using model systems ‘measles’ and ‘forest-spring encephalitis’. Selection of optimal particle size and manufacturing proteins labeled with metal nanoparticles.
  • Optimization conditions of immobilization of protein on transducer substrate.
  • Working out electrochemical methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis of biological liquids (blood and its fractions) for ‘measles’ and ‘forest-spring encephalitis’, using them as model systems.
  • To develop methods of analysis, software and to adopt voltammetric analyzer ‘IVA’ to control sensors and to process information.

Expected Results and Application
  1. Principles and technical approaches for the creation of new class of electrochemical nonenzymatic biosensors with carbon nanostructured material used as transducer and biomolecule labeled with metal nanoparticles which will be used as information generative compound.
  2. Electrochemical nonenzymatic biosensors for detection of ‘measles’ and ‘forest-spring encephalitis’ antigens and specific antibodies will be developed.
  3. Methods, software and instrument, based on the developed sensors and Analyzer “IVA”-5, will be created for express diagnostics of infection diseases (measles and forest-spring encephalitis).

Scientific value of the Project is caused by the decision of one of the urgent problems of our days – the development or the new class of nonenzymatic biosensors which, being applied in electrochemical methods, are able to diagnose viruses of infection deceases in hospital, polyclinic and on-site conditions.

Practical aspect of the Project is to create nonenzymatic biosensors, software and methods for early diagnostics of such deceases as measles and tick-borne encephalitis with the use of voltammetric analyzer ‘IVA’ which was worked out earlier in the frames of ISTC Project # 342.

The results obtained from the Project will serve as a base for the development of new generation of diagnostic systems for dangerous infections.

Application area: medicine, struggle against bioterrorism, environmental monitoring.

The Project is of commercial importance because there is a great demand of international market in available equipment for systematic and express monitoring of human health status.


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