Indication Biopathogens in Water
Development and Implementation of the Express Methods for Indication Biopathogens in Water Consumption Places
Tech Area / Field
- MED-DIS/Disease Surveillance/Medicine
- MED-DID/Diagnostics & Devices/Medicine
3 Approved without Funding
Department of Disease Prevention and State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance, Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek
- Central Research Institute of Epidemioloigy, Russia, Moscow\nRepublican Center of Quarantine and Especially Dangerous Infections, Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) / Respiratory and Enteric Viruses Branch, USA, GA, Atlanta
Project summaryAccording to the data of the World Health Organization, globally, on the average, around 250 million people annually taken ill by the diseases spread through the water way, 5-10 million cases are ended with the fatal outcome. At present, quite sufficient data has been accumulated which witness of the presence of the wide specter of the intestinal viruses pathogenic for a human, protozoa, enteropatogenic bacteria and vibrio cholera in the various objects of the environment, moreover, water has the most epidemic significance. The issue of the infection of water by the microorganisms is extremely urgent for the medicine since the water factor plays the essential role in the spread of such diseases as the acute viral hepatitis, meningitis’s, paralyses, heart diseases, of the pancreas, of the gastrointestinal tract, eyes. Based on this issue of providing the population with the quality drinking water and the microbiological control of the water quality is one of the urgent issues of health services.
In Kyrgyz Republic out of the 1781 settlements of the country 609 where 24,7% live of the total population are not provided with the centralized water supply. As the source for the majority of the water pipes systems there are the surface inter-stratum waters are used. The water use of the of the considerable part of the rural population is carried out through the superficial water and open water sources, in particular, from the system of the irrigation canals.
The majority of the water pipes are in unsatisfactory sanitary state, it requires the reconstruction and repairing which influences the quality of water supplied to the population. The analysis of quality adequacy of the water of the centralized systems to the sanitary norms and rules has shown that in 12,16% cases it did not correspond to the requirements. Infrequently, the coli-titer had the sharp fluctuation depending on the time of the year. There is no unified system of the operation of the water pipes, centralized supplies of equipment, reagents and disinfection means, implementation of the state policy in the sphere of the developments of the water pipes, their stable functioning. There is no unified system of the control of the water, especially of its microbiological component.
Around 500 thousand of people fall ill with the acute intestinal infections (AII) in Kyrgyzstan annually. The jumping dynamics of the sickness rate AII depending on the water supply conditions indicate to the evident participation of the water way as one of the water factors of the AII spread among the population. For the period from 1997 through 2003 there was registered 1740 cases of the typhoid in the Republic connected with the use of the water with low quality. There are outbreaks of the acute viral hepatitis A and E, enteroviral meningitis with the water way transmittance of the infection.
In this way, there emerges the necessity of development of the accelerated methods of indicating the biopathogens in the water objects, of the control of the quality of the drinking water which is extremely important for the timely planning and implementing of the complex sanitary-hygienical and antiepidemic actions directed towards the limitation of the circulation of the pathogenic organisms of the intestinal infections spread through the water ways. The provision of the preparedness towards the quick revealing of the microbial contamination of the objects of the water environment is possible with the use of the up-to-date methods of detection of the viruses and bacteria: the immune-enzyme analysis (IEA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Aim of the project is the development and implementation of the express methods of monitoring of the biologically dangerous microorganisms in the water use objects in Kyrgyz Republic.
For the water sampling there will be carried out the sampling of reservoirs and control points on the basis of the data of the microbiological indicators of the water quality available at the sanitary epidemic stations of the Republic. The water sampling and its delivery for the investigation of the study of the cultures of the vibrio cholera and enteropathogenic bacteria will be implemented in compliance with the season time of the discovery of the enteropathogenic bacteria, intestinal viruses from June through September. The shortness of the sampling and to be planned-once in 10 days period will be held in compliance with the acting on the territory of the Kyrgyz Republic. For apprising the epidemic significance and study of the isolated cultures the specialists of the antiplague and Sanitary- Epidemiological Services will be attracted.
The researches on the selection of the optimum methods and algorithms of concentrating the water samples and creation of the control samples which allow controlling the efficiency of this stage of researches will be held by FSIS “CERI” at the first stage of carrying out the works. After having selected the optimum methods of preparing the water samples adapted for using in the Kyrgyz Republic they will be transferred for the approbation on the field material to the head institute.
The researches on the concentrations of the water samples on the base of the institute FSIS “CERI” will be carried out for implementing the typing, determining of the genetic variability of the strains with using the PCR of the intestinal virus and bacteria. For the part of the indicated viruses there are also developed the contamination free methods of carrying out the PCR with the hybridization fluorescence detection in the real time mode and after PCR completion. The above methods were adapted to be used on the clinical material, when implementing works on this project there will be created the tests designed for highly sensitive detection of the causative agents in the objects of the water environment.
It is planned to use the PCR method for implementing the typing of the virus agents extracted from the water (the P
and G genotyping of the A group rotaviruses, astroviruses, adenoviruses typing).
As a result of implementing the project there will be developed the express-methods of indicating the bio-pathogens which were not included in the list to be controlled by the system of the Sanitary Epidemilogical Surveillance. The data will be received which will allow appraise the level of the microbial contamination of the water use sources of population and quality of the drinking water, implementation of express methods of control quality of drinking water, safe on the microbiological indicators. This task has the important economic importance and is one of the major chains of warning to use the biological agents for contaminating the sources of the water use of the population when the terroristic acts and emergences occur in the centralized water system.