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Biostimulants growth and development of agricultural crops

#KR-1991


Biotechnological approaches to the creation of growthstimulating plant preparations and phytoimmunecorrectors for using in plant cultivation

Tech Area / Field

  • AGR-PPR/Plant Protection/Agriculture
  • BIO-SFS/Biosafety and BioSecurity/Biotechnology

Status
3 Approved without Funding

Registration date
07.12.2011

Leading Institute
Institute of Biology and Pedology, Kyrgyzstan, Bishkek

Collaborators

  • Universität für Bodenkultur, Austria, Vienna

Project summary

Goal of the project: the development of biotechnological approaches to the creation of plant preparations with growthstimulating and phytoimmune-corrective action.
Last decades have been noted by revival of interest of a wide range of experts – plant breeders, to the use of biologically active substances, in particular, of growthstimulating compounds in agriculture practice for rehabilitation of plants, increase their productivity and immunity to the influence of adverse environment conditions. Huge and constant use of chemical plant protection means have generated not only successes but also many difficulties in agriculture practice. Unjustified application of chemical means and their accumulation in the nature have become a source of numerous dangerous complications. Therefore search for other methods providing increase of plant resistance to harmful organisms, to various stresses is a perspective way of modern plant cultivation development.
Nowadays it has been testified that various biological compounds contained in plant tissues have strong regulating influence on plant development. Auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, polyphenolic compounds ( coumarins), glycosides, amino acids, enzymes etc. belong to the most active compounds of plant origin.
Penetration of these substances into a plant cell causes complex changes in the general metabolism of the host. Influencing the molecular organisation and permeability of endocellular membranes and the state of alive protoplasm, growthstimulating substances cause qualitative changes in the enzymatic activity and energy of cell respiratory exchange that is closely connected with new formation of proteins and nucleic acids. Processes of protein and chlorophyll biosynthesis become more active in tissues.
Issues on the influence of growthstimulating substances on the energy of cell respiratory exchange and their possible role in plant metabolism regulation and in the system of protective reactions have been reported insufficiently so far.
The possibility to research into the ways of active structures isolation and study the dependence of biological activity on their chemical structure is a prominent aspect of growthstimulating compounds obtained from plants of wild-growing flora.
Earlier we established that a number of plants of the wild flora of Kyrgyzstan (shepherd's purse, Adonis, celandine, bird cherry, fustic, oleaster, elecampane, German chamomile etc.) contain compounds possessing growthstimulating activity and, when processing seeds of wheat, lucerne, esparcet, vegetable cultures in different conditions, stimulate the growth of coleoptiles and promote increasing of seeds germinating ability and the energy of germination by 15 - 30 % and more.
The above-stated materials testify to promissory of this direction and expediency of elaboration of ecologically safe means of plant protection from harmful organisms, stimulators of growth and adaptogens (means of raising plant productivity and improving crop quality).
In this connection, the following tasks have been set.
Research tasks:
- Search and collection of plants with growthstimulating and fungicidal activity from high-mountain areas of Kyrgyzstan;
- Primary screening of plants with confirmed growthstimulating and fungicidal activity among wild-growing and endemic
flora of Kyrgyzstan;
- Estimation of the ability of selected wild-growing and endemic plant samples to increase the resistance of cultivated
plants to adverse biotic and abiotic factors;
- Isolation of active compounds from promising samples of wild-growing and endemic plants, their biochemical
characteristic;
- Creation of a biological preparation of plant origin with growthstimulating activity as phytoimmunecorrectors of the
quality, quantity and ecological purity of agricultural production.
Expected results:
The obtained results can form a basis for further researches in the field of biotechnology and gene engineering for creation of recombinant microorganisms - producers of biological preparations, and genetically modified plants resistant to harmful organisms.
The following results will be obtained:
- a register of plants from high-mountain areas of Kyrgyzstan with growthstimulating and fungicidal activity will be
compiled;
- superior plants from wild-growing and endemic flora of Kyrgyzstan with confirmed growthstimulating and fungicidal
activity will be selected;
- the most biologically effective compounds from the isolated groups will be determined according to the level of target
activity for test objects;
- biotechnological approaches for obtaining plant preparations providing increase of cultivated plants productivity and crop
ecological purity will be determined;
- biological preparations of plant origin with growthstimulating activity will be created for using in agrobiotechnological
processes.


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