Acute Intestinal Diseases in Tajikistan
Study of Etiological Structure of Acute Intestinal Diseases, Activators Behavior and Optimization of Preventive and Anti-Epidemiological Activities during Such Infections in Republic of Tajikistan
Tech Area / Field
- MED-DIS/Disease Surveillance/Medicine
8 Project completed
Senior Project Manager
Rudneva V Ya
Republican Center for State Sanitary Epidemiological Control, Tajikistan, Dushanbe
- Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, USA, MD, Rockville
Project summaryThe morbidity level from diarrheal diseases is an indicator of population’s and regions social welfare. It is also reflects the degree of the population’s resistance to infections, the quality of drinking water, the character and condition of water use and environmental health education. For these reasons, the study of diarrheal diseases morbidity is an important endeavor.
The quality of drinking water and the degree of the population’s resistance to infections is significantly influenced by different ecological factors: climatic conditions; contamination of the environment including the soil, water and air with organic substances, inorganic substances; and radiation. This creates a condition for the development, multiplication, and acceleration of microorganisms’ mutation, causing outbreaks of infectious diseases with diarrheal syndrome.
One of the particularities of infections from water-born transmission is the polyresistance to an-tibiotics. However, there is no research regarding characteristics of current strains of microorganisms.
Significant role in formation of character of current and outcomes of diarrhoea diseases is played with mutagen influence of environment on activators of acute intestinal diseases: pollution of superficial water sources, deterioration of potable water, application of organic means for protection of plants (pesticides), influence of industrial productions disposal (Yavan chemical plant, Vakhsh azotic ferilizer factory, Tajik aluminium factory, Ayni and Takob ore mining and processing enterprice, as well as Tajikcement).
These factors indicate that the study of such topics as the population’s resistance to infections, changing characteristics of microbes and the ecological stress will improve the quality of control over infectious diseases of diarrheal origin. It is also ensure the adequacy of antiepidemic actions and model possible outbreaks of these infections. This is important not only for the Republic of Tajikistan, but for other countries with a similar ecological situation.
When identifying the development and spread of diarrheal diseases, the most significant factors are: the quality and amount of drinking water; the method of use of water; the presence of ecological stress in the region; social-economic conditions; the sanitary-hygienic education of the population; the nature and particularities of infections age nts; and the degree of the population’s resistance to acute diarrheal diseases. These factors define an epidemic situation in any region of the world in Asian and African region. There are many factors that contribute to the possibility of outbreaks of epidemics: high population density; high birth rates; low economic levels; consequences of political hostilities, i.e., population migration, overcrowding in refugee camps, insufficient amount of food and safe drinking water, unsanitary hygienic conditions, low quality health care. These factors create an environment for the development of outbreaks of infectious diseases with conditions for their transition to epidemics. Previously the most significant infections were those caused by agents of Group I and II microorganisms: plague, cholera, anthrax, hemorrhage fever. Currently numerous epidemic diseases are due to agents of Group III and IV, among which acute diarrhea plays a leading role: enteric fever and other salmonellas, bacterial dysentery and conditionally-pathogenic infections. This is explained by the changing characteristics of agents: polyresistance to a broad spectrum of antibiotics and disinfecting facilities, and mutation of avirulent cultures, for example the NAG-vibrio. Also, this is caused by decreased resistance of macroorganisms to these infections: high receptivity for infections, delaying and charging of clinical symptoms, increasing the latent forms of diseases and forming of chronic carriers, with further conditions for diseases’ spreading. Combined with social-economic, sanitary-hygienic and ecological factors mass outbreaks of infections can be produced, particularly water-transmitted, spreading throughout the entire world. If today it is possible to create a strict supervising system and control of the current situation, including acute diarrheal diseases, in the near future this problem will become more controllable. The openness and transparency of borders particularly between countries of the former USSR and increased of tourist, business and migration processes increase the necessity to study the global epidemical situation. This would help create general qualitative control models and supervising of infections spreading processes, including diarrheal ones on the world -level. This project will develop an assessment system and control for diarrheal diseases. It will also prioritize factors and systemize anti-epidemical and preventive actions at a world level while taking into account regional particularities.