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Adaptive X-ray Optics

#4063


Development of Methods for Controlling X-Ray Beam Parameters for Solving Problems of Adaptive X-Ray Optics in Radiology

Tech Area / Field

  • BIO-RAD/Radiobiology/Biotechnology
  • PHY-PFA/Particles, Fields and Accelerator Physics/Physics

Status
3 Approved without Funding

Registration date
21.05.2010

Leading Institute
Nizhni Novgorod State University name after N.I. Lobachevsky, Russia, N. Novgorod reg., N. Novgorod

Supporting institutes

  • VNIIEF, Russia, N. Novgorod reg., Sarov

Collaborators

  • Polytechnic Institute of NYU, USA, NY, Brooklyn\nMax-Born-Institut für Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspectroskopie, Germany, Berlin\nInstitute of Electronic Structure & Laser, Greece, Heraklione

Project summary

The problem of controlling x-ray parameters is important for many areas of science and technology.

The project objective is to develop the methods of adaptive X-ray optics for reducing radiation dose in radiology and adjusting X-ray beam convergence in the X-ray optics.

The project idea: controlling the X-ray beam parameters by varying conditions of the X-ray diffraction from a surface of a crystal locally heated by light beam. Such exposure makes it possible by local varying the crystal diffraction parameters, to local mismatch the Bragg’s angles and, by that to form a spatial structure of X-ray beams and adjust their convergence. Using for this purpose a multimedia projector as a light source, allows appropriate positioning of the light beam on the crystal surface and, hence, automatic controlling the X-ray beam parameters. With such approach the X-radiation effect on the exposed objects (e.g. biological tissues, solid samples, atomic and molecular structures, etc.) can be localized and dosed in space and time, thus avoiding excessive damage of the objects.

The following tasks are planned to be fulfilled:

  1. To develop the X-ray optical systems for radiology which enable generating a spatio-temporal structure of X-ray beams for the localized effect on biological tissues. Combined with monochromatization of X-rays, such systems allow several-fold reducing the radiation dose and increasing the information content of X-ray images. In addition, they can be used in telemedicine for carrying out distant radiological sessions.
  2. To develop X-ray beam convergence adjustment systems that can be used in the X-ray optical set-ups for improving their characteristics.

The following will be developed under the project:
  • methods of adaptive space-time modulation of an X-ray beam, in which the intensity distribution is functionally associated with distribution of linear absorption coefficient of the substances constituting a diagnosed object;
  • methods of the X-ray beam convergence adjustment to be used in focusing systems;
  • methods of registration of spatial distribution of the X-ray beam intensity after passing through a diagnosed object;
  • high space-and-time resolution X-ray recording system with transmission of digital data to a computer, and a method of the object spatial structure visualization.

Basing on the developed methods, it is planned to create a scheme of a laboratory model of the device for diagnostics of biological objects. Significant (up to a factor of 20 and more) decrease of the radiation dose is the device advantage. The diagnostic informativeness of the images can be substantially greater than that of photofluorographic images obtained by means of standard X-ray methods.

The experience to be gained during the project execution is expected to be applied in medicine, for making diagnostic and treatment facilities, as well as in biology, for irradiating biological objects.

Project participants from VNIIEF formerly participated in nuclear weapons development and assessment. The proposed project provides the scientists and engineers formerly involved in the weapons development and production with an opportunity to apply their knowledge and experience for long-term activities in civilian areas of medicine and biology.


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