Boreskov Institute of Catalysis
Boreskov Institute of Catalysis (BIC)
5, Prospekt Akademika Lavrent'eva, Akademgorodok, Novosibirsk reg., 630090, Russia
- 0110 - Mixed Waste Destruction
- 0763 - Autonomous Heating System
- 0786 - Universal Accelerator for Medicine and Industry
- 0896 - Destruction of Mixed Liquid Waste
- 0959 - Rocket Fuels Components
- 1632 - Solid Propellant Utilisation
- 1678 - High Temperature Catalytic Burners
- 2122 - Two Stage Catalytic Water Boiler
- 2291 - Compact Natural Gas Steam Reformer
- 2318 - Galvanochemical Technology for Liquid Radioactive Waste Treatment
- 2327 - Development of an Apparatus of Gas Conditioning
- 2383 - Wastes Treatment in Supercritical Water
- 2529 - Nanocomposite Catalyst
- 2904 - Small Capacity Fuel Cells
- 3118 - Technology and Apparatus on Natural Gas Desulfurization
- 3140 - Separator for Fuel Cells
- 3140.2 - Separator for Fuel Cells
- 3227 - Super Low Emission Vehicle
- 3234 - Membranes for Pure Syn-Gas Generators
- 3285 - Destruction of Organic Wastes in Supercritical Water
- 3305 - Catalysts for Degradation of Harmful Gases
- 3441 - Decontamination of Rocket Fuel Spills
- 3618 - Microprocessor of Dimethylether for Fuel Cells
- 3669 - Terpenoids in Supercritical Solvents
- 3670 - Nanoparticles in Supercritical Fluids
- 3738 - Catalytic Microheater for Cassette Type Fuel Cell
- 3908 - Small Capacity Fuel Cells
- 3937 - Bioethanol-Based Fuel Processor
- 3948 - Transformation of Nanodiamonds into Onion-Like Carbon Nanoparticles
- 3967 - Physiologically Active Compounds from Terpenoids
- 3968 - Biodiesel Fuel and Polyatomic Alcohols from Plant Raw Materials
- 4075 - Synthesis of Nanoparticles of Metals and Metal-Organic Compounds in Supercritical Water
- B-1708 - Nanocarbon in Electromagnetic Applications
- Radioactive Waste Treatment / Environment
- Heating and Cooling Systems / Non-Nuclear Energy
- Particles, Fields and Accelerator Physics / Physics
- Water Pollution and Control / Environment
- Other / Chemistry
- Explosives / Materials
- Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Process Engineering / Chemistry
- Waste Disposal / Environment
- Fuels / Non-Nuclear Energy
- Fuel Conversion / Non-Nuclear Energy
- Electric Power Production / Non-Nuclear Energy
- Air Pollution and Control / Environment
- Miscellaneous Energy Conversion / Non-Nuclear Energy
- Composites / Materials
- Environmental Health and Safety / Environment
- Remediation and Decontamination / Environment
- Photo and Radiation Chemistry / Chemistry
- Materials Synthesis and Processing / Materials
- Basic and Synthetic Chemistry / Chemistry
- Other / Materials
- High Performance Metals and Alloys / Materials
- Solid State Physics / Physics
BriefThe Boreskov Institute of Catalysis of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences is the world's largest specialised institute in this field. The Institute carries out fundamental and applied studies in all practically fields of catalysis. The Institute is situated in Akademgorodok (Siberian Scientific Centre), 30-km from Novosibirsk, the largest city of Siberia. The personnel of the Institute comprises 1000 people, of whom 434 are researchers, including 1 full member and 1 correspondent member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, about 40 doctors of sciences and 200 candidates of sciences. The scientists of the Institute work in 34 research laboratories and 17 research groups.
- Development of general theory of homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzymatic catalysis; prediction of catalytic action;
- Development of the theory and fundamentals of catalyst preparation;
- Investigation of kinetics of catalytic processes;
- Development of theoretical basis for chemical technology;
- Development of catalysts for innovative application areas.
Catalysis is a backbone of the technical progress in chemistry, oil refinery and oil chemistry. About 90% of modern chemical technologies appear to be based on catalytic processes. Current commercial production of sulphuric and nitric acids, fertilisers, motor fuels, monomeric and polymeric materials cannot exist without catalysts. Catalytic methods are rapidly penetrating into the food industry, energetics, metallurgy and transportation. Currently, catalysts are used more frequently to solve important environmental problems.
Catalysis itself is a complex and multiform phenomenon. The prediction of catalytic action is one of the most important problems of the field. To solve this problem it is necessary to know the nature of interaction between reactants and catalysts, the composition and structure of intermediates, the combination of consecutive steps of processes and the main properties of substances that determine the catalytic activity. Other problems of primary concern include development of methods for catalyst preparation and investigation of their structure, elaboration of procedures for commercial process performance, optimisation and simulation of catalytic reactors and reactions on the basis of detailed analysis of catalytic reaction kinetics.
At present, the study of the nature of catalytic action and catalyst structure, development of both fundamental and practical approaches to catalyst preparation and performance are, in effect, impossible without various chemical, physical and combined methods.
Quantum-chemical research is mainly directed towards the calculation of electronic structures of models of activated complexes, intermediates and catalysts.
Methods for determining the chemical and phase composition of catalysts and those of catalytic reaction products are now in progress for all elements of the Periodic Table and for their various combinations and ratios. Atomic absorption spectroscopy, various analytical physico-chemical and chemical methods serve for catalyst analysis. Chromatography is employed mainly to examine the composition of catalyst reaction products.
Adsorption methods, porosimetry, and calorimeters are extensively used to study the geometry and chemistry of catalyst surface, specific area, pore structure, adsorption heat, etc.
Design of industrial catalytic processes is based on the detailed study of reaction kinetics. The Institute possesses various highly potential and precise physical research methods. The structure and properties of catalysts and reaction products are studied with X-ray electron diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, vibrational and UV-VIS spectroscopes. IR spectra can be registered within the range of 10-1500 cm -1 at temperatures ranging from 196 to 700 C, UV and VIS spectra - within 200-2500 nm, diffuse scattering spectra - 220-1000 nm. Laser Raman spectra are recorded upon excitation at wavelengths within 440-630 nm, the exciting radiation being tuned continuously. For fast processes pulse radiolysis, pulse photolysis and ion cyclotron resonance are employed.
Electron spin resonance (ESR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are powerful tools to investigate phase composition, electronic structure of catalysts and processes, proceeding between reaction components and active sites of catalysts. Radioisotopes and ionising radiation are used to study kinetics and mechanisms of heterogeneous reactions.
Photoelectron and Auger spectroscopy provides information on the surface chemical composition of heterogeneous catalysts and the electronic structure of adsorbed atoms and molecules. Usually, these methods are complemented with thermodesorption and low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) technique.
Synchrotron radiation opens new potential to study catalytic properties (charge of active component, radii of co-ordination spheres, co-ordination numbers of atoms, surface composition). Complementary methods of small angular scattering (evaluation of size and size distributions of microparticles and micropores with computer data processing), X-ray, photoelectron spectroscopes and EXAFS (extended X-ray analysis of structure) are commonly used. Various modifications of the EXAFS method are in progress: fluorescence EXAFS for studying the bulk and supported catalysts that contain small concentrations of active component and Auger-EXAFS to determine the composition and structure of catalyst surface and adsorption events.
A fruitful combination of fundamental and applied research is a basic principle of Institute activity. All applied investigations use novel results of fundamental science, and bring them into practice, promoting and enriching academic science with practical knowledge and experience. The Institute is a leader of the R&D company MNTK "KATALIZATOR", created to solve key problems in the design and implementation of new-generation, highly efficient catalysts and catalytic processes. MNTK "Katalizator" was founded in 1985 due to the vital necessity to concentrate scientific forces and means in industrial catalysis, now responsible for 10-15% of overall national production.
The International Centre for Catalyst Characterisation and Testing was established in 1991 on the basis of the Boreskov Institute of Catalysis and MNTK "KATALIZATOR". The centre performs complex research in fundamental and applied catalysis. Highly educated specialists, trained in various trends of science, contribute to the Centre activities. Within a short time it is possible to obtain a unique combination of data on the structure of active sites, detailed reaction kinetics and mechanisms and to apply these data to the design of new catalysts and processes, as required. The Centre arranges and commissions both projects, required by various organisations from Russia and abroad, and those of a bilateral and multilateral nature.
Institute of Catalysis deals with the following Catalytic Processes:
- Chemistry and processing of gas and oil: catalytic conversion of various hydrocarbons including methane;
- Hydropurification and hydrodemetallation. Synthesis of organic and inorganic chemicals: oxidation of SO2 to SO3;
- synthesis of methanol, partial oxidation of alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, aromatics; polymerisation of olefins; synthesis of organic sulphides and amines, etc.;
- Fine organic synthesis: synthesis of biologically active substances, vitamins, herbicides, amino acids, etc.
- Synthesis of new materials: thermally stable catalyst supports and adsorbents, carbon-carbon, carbon-mineral and mineral-mineral composites;
- Processes of energy conversion: catalytic combustion and heat generation systems - catalytic heat generators, gas-burning space heaters and catalytic heat exchangers; solar energy conversion, high temperature fuel cells, etc.;
- Processes for environmental protection: catalytic detoxification of industrial waste and wastewater, including that containing organics and radionuclides, catalytic purification of gas streams from organic compounds, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrogen sulphide and other pollutants; purification of automotive exhaust gases.